There are several factors that influence transmission of cervical cancer. One of them is smoking, because young people today are too free of association. Not only smoking, there are still a number of factors that are a factor in the transmission of cervical cancer. Some of the factors that cause cervical cancer include:
There are several factors that can increase the risk of cervical cancer, including:
1. Having sex at a young age or marriage at a young age
This factor is a major risk factor. The younger a woman has sex, the greater the risk for cervical cancer. Based on the research of experts, women who have sex at the age of less than 17 years have a risk 3 times greater than those who married at the age of more than 20 years.
2. Changing sexual partners
Sexual behavior in the form of multiple sex partners will increase transmission of venereal disease. Transmitted diseases such as human papilloma virus (HPV) infection have been shown to increase the incidence of cervical, penile and vulvar cancers. The risk of developing cervical cancer is 10 times that of women who have sexual partners of 6 or more people. In addition, herpes simplex virus type-2 can be a companion factor.
Smoker women have a 2 times greater risk of cervical cancer compared to women who do not smoke. Research shows that cervical mucus in smokers contains nicotine and other substances in cigarettes. These substances will reduce cervical endurance in addition to exposing co-carcinogens to viral infections.
4. Nutritional deficiency
There are several studies that conclude that folic acid deficiency can increase the risk of mild and moderate dysplasia, and may also increase the risk of cervical cancer in women whose diet is low in beta carotene and retinol (vitamin A).
5. Chronic trauma to the cervix such as labor, infection, and chronic irritation
In the precancerous phase, there are often no symptoms or typical signs. However, sometimes symptoms can be found as follows:
Leucorrhoea or dilute discharge from the vagina.
Bleeding after copulation which then continues to be abnormal bleeding.
The onset of bleeding after menopause.
In the invasive phase can come out yellowish liquid, smell and can mix with blood.
Symptoms of anemia occur when chronic bleeding occurs.
Pelvic pain (pelvis) or in the lower abdomen arises if there is pelvic inflammation. If pain occurs in the lower waist area, hydronephrosis may occur. In addition, pain can also arise in other places.
At an advanced stage, the body becomes emaciated due to malnutrition, foot edema, irritation of the bladder and shaft of the lower colon (rectum), formation of vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistula, or symptoms arising from distant metastases.
Like cancer, this type of cancer can also experience spread (metastasis)